The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of the two existing subspecies of Equus ferus. It is a juvenile-juvenile-juvenile mamma
l belonging to the taxonomic family of equidae. Over the 45 to 55 million years, the horse evolved from a small versatile creature, Eohippus, to today’s big finger. People started moving horses around 4000 BC. BC, and their domestication is probably up to 3000 BC. J.-C. Chr. General. Horses of the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some animals live in the wild like wild horses. These wild populations are not real wild horses, as this term is used to name horses that have never been domesticated, such as Przewalski’s threatened horse, his own subspecies, and the only remaining wild horse. Extensive and specialized vocabulary was used to describe concepts related to horses, from anatomy to stages of life, size, colors, brands, races,
movements and behaviors.
Horse anatomy allows them to use speed to escape from predators and have a well developed sense of balance and a strong fight or flight reaction. Due to this need to escape predators wild birds is an unusual feature: horses can climb and descend. Mares, called mares, carry their child for about 11 months, and a young horse called a foal can stand and walk shortly after birth. Most domestic horses begin to train in saddles or armor between two and four years. They achieve adult mature development at the age of five and have a half-life of 25 to 30 years.
Horse races are divided into three categories based on the general temperament: hot blood animated with speed and endurance; “Cold Blood”, like pulling horses and horses, suitable for slow and heavy work; And “hot blood” developed from crosses between cold and hot hemorrhages, we often focus on the development of varieties for specific driving purposes, especially in Europe. There are more than 300 breeds of horses in the world, developed for many different applications.
Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sports competitions and non-competitive recreational activities, as well as in work activities such as police work, agriculture, entertainment and therapy. Horses were historically used in war, from which a wide variety of driving and driving techniques were developed, using many styles of equipment and control methods. Many products come from horses, including meat, milk, skin, hair, bones and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domestic horses with food, water and shelter, as well as the care of specialists such as veterinarians and quarterbacks
Life and stages of life
Depending on race, management and environment, the modern house horse has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years. Often live some animals in their 40s and sometimes beyond. The earliest verifiable record was “Old Billy”, a 19th century horse that lived at the age of 62 years. Currently, Sugar Puff, ranked in Guinness World Records as the oldest pony in the world, died in 2007 at the age of 56 years.
Regardless of the actual date of birth of a horse or pony, for most competitions, one year is added to each age on 1 January of each year in the northern hemisphere and on 1 August in the southern hemisphere. The exception concerns riding, where the minimum age of competition is based on the actual age of the animal.
The following terminology is used to describe horses of different ages:
Foals: A male horse less than four years old. A common misunderstanding in terminology is to call each young horse a “foal,” while the term refers only to young male horses.
Mare filly: a woman less than four years old.
Foals: a horse of both sexes less than one year old. A foal nurse is sometimes referred to as breastfeeding and a foal that has been weaned is called a weaning. More domesticated foals are weaned in five to seven months, although foals can be weaned in four months without negative physical effects.
Castrated: a castrated male of all ages.
Mare: a woman of four years or more.
Stallion: a non-castrated male horse four years or older. The term “horse” is sometimes used in a colloquial manner to refer specifically to a standard.
Year: a horse of both sexes, between one and two years.
In horses, these definitions may differ: For example, in the British Isles, purebred horse breeding defines foals and fillings that are less than five years old. However, the purebred Australian breed defines foals and fillers that are less than four years old.
Size and measurement
The height of the horses is generally measured at the highest point of the cross where the neck meets the back. This point is used because it is a stable point of anatomy, unlike the head or neck, which move up and down with respect to the body of the horse.
In English-speaking countries the height of horses is often expressed in units of hands and inches: a hand is equal to 4 inches (101.6 mm). The height is expressed as the number of full hands, followed by a dot, then the number of additional centimeters, and ends with the abbreviation “h” or “hh” (for “high hands”). Thus, a horse, which is called “15.2 h”, is 15 hands plus 2 inches, for a total of 62 inches (157.5 cm) in height.
A big brown horse chases a small horse on a meadow.
The size varies greatly between horse breeds, as with this big horse and small foal.
The size of the horses varies according to the breed, but is also influenced by diet. Light horses usually have a length of 14 to 16 hands (56 to 64 inches, 142 to 163 cm) and can range from 380 to 550 kilograms (840 to 1,210 pounds). Larger horses usually start with about 15.2 hands (62 inches, 157 cm) and are often as large as 17 hands (68 inches, 173 cm) with a weight of 500 to 600 kilos (1,100 to 1,320 pounds). Heavy or shot horses are usually at least 16 hands (64 inches, 163 cm) tall and can be as tall as 18 hands (72 inches, 183 cm) in height. They can weigh about 700 to 1000 kilograms (1,540 to 2,200 pounds).
The largest horse in the recorded history was probably a Shire horse called Mammoth, born in 1848. It had 21.2 1/4 hands (86.25 inches, 219 cm) high and the maximum weight was estimated at 1.524 kilos (3,360 pounds). The current owner of the world’s smallest horse record is Thumbelina, a full-fledged miniature horse hit by dwarfism. It is 17 cm (43 cm) tall and weighs 57 pounds (26 kg).
Ponies are taxonomically the same animals as horses. The distinction between horse and pony is usually drawn at height, especially for competition purposes. However, the height alone is not discordant; The difference between the horses and ponies can also include aspects of the phenotype, including faintness and temperament.
The traditional standard for the height of a horse or a pony on the due date is 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm). An animal h 14.2 or more is usually considered a horse and one less than 14.2 hours per pony, but there are many exceptions to the traditional standard. In Australia, ponies are considered to be under 14 hands (56 inches, 142 cm). For the competition in the Western Division of the United States Equestrian Federation, the cutoff 14.1 hands (57 inches, 145 cm). The Fédération Equestre International, the World Organization for Equestrian Sports, uses metric measurements and defined as a pony horse that is less than 148 centimeters (58.27 in) on the shoulder without shoes, which is just over 14.2 hours and 149, Measures cm (58.66 inches), or just over 14.2½ hours with shoes.
Height is not the only criterion for distinguishing pony horses. Extensive records for horses producing individually below and 14.2 hours, all animals of that breed refer to horses, regardless of their length. In contrast, some foal breeds may have properties common to horses, and individual animals may occasionally grow more than 14.2 hours, but are still considered as ponies.
Colts usually show thicker males, tails and overall jacket. They also have proportionately shorter legs, wider vessels, heavier bones, shorter and thicker neck, and short heads with wide foreheads. They may have a calmer temperament than horses and also a high level of intelligence that may or may not be used to work with traffickers. Small size is not an exclusive determinant in itself. For example, the Shetland pony, which averages 10 hands (40 inches, 102 cm), is considered a pony. By contrast, races such as Falabella and other miniature horses, which are no more than 76 cm, can be classified by their records as very small horses, not ponies.
Horses have 64 chromosomes. genome of the horse was sequenced in 2007. It contains 2.7 billion base pairs of DNA, which are larger than the dog’s genome, but smaller than the human genome, or the bovine genome. The map is available to researchers.
Color and marks
Two horses in the field. From the left is a mane of dark brown color and black tail. One that is a real red light around.
Bay (left) and chestnut (sometimes called “sorrel”) are two of the most common coat color, seen in almost all breeds.
Main article: Genetics of Horse Coat Equine coat color, makes and Horses
Horse show a number of different color layer and ha marks, is described by a special vocabulary. Often, a horse is first classified by the color jacket and, before the race or sex. Horse of the same color can be distinguished from each other by the white markings, which accompany a spotting such pattern, inherited separately from the color of the jacket.
Many of the genes that create colors and coat patterns of the horse have been identified. Genetic testing can now determine at least 13 different alleles that influence coat color, and research continues to find new genes related to specific traits. Basic chestnut colored and black jacket are determined by genes controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor, also known as “extension agents” or “red”, as a recessive form is the “red” (brown) and the dominant form is black. additional genes that control the suppression of black coloration to denote what a bay involves, detecting patterns such as pinto or leopard, diluted genes such as Palomino or Dun, as well as graying, and all other factors that make it more possible colored jacket found on horses.
Horses that have a coat white color are often wrong; A horse that looks “white” is usually a middle-aged gray or older. Grays are born with a darker shade, they become lighter at the age, but usually keep the black skin under their white fur (except for the pink skin under the white markings). The only well-named white horses were born with a coat of hair and a prevalently white pink skin, a rather rare event. Several unrelated genetic factors can produce white hues in horses, including several different dominant white alleles and sabino-1 gene. However, there are no albino horses, defined as having pink skin and red eyes.
The pregnancy takes about 340 days, with an average interval of 320 to 370 days, and usually translates into a rack; Twins are rare. Horses are an early species and foals can stand and run shortly after birth. Colts are usually born in spring. The extrusion cycle of a mare occurs approximately every 19-22 days and occurs from spring to autumn. Most of the bicycles enter an increasing period during the winter and therefore do not go at this time. Colts are usually from their mothers between four and six months old.
Horses, between foals, are sometimes physically able to reproduce after 18 months, but rarely allowed to reproduce domesticated horses three years ago, especially women. Four-year-old horses are considered mature, although the skeleton usually grows to the age of six years; The maturation also depends on the size of the horse, the breed, the sex and the quality of the care. The larger horses have larger bones; Therefore, not only bone need more time to form bone tissue, but epithelial plaques are larger and last longer to become bone cartilage. These plaques develop according to other parts of the bones and are crucial for the development.
Depending on maturity, race and work expected, horses are usually placed under the saddle and trained to be ridden between two and four. Although pure blood is bred on a young course as the age of two, in some countries, horses are bred for sports as a dressage is usually not subject to the chair until they are three or four years old because their bones and muscles are not Strongly developed. Because of the endurance, horses are not considered mature enough to compete for up to 60 months (five years).
Horses Documentary from youtube
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